** partially supported by Simons Foundation*

A direct construction of equilibrium magnetic fields with toroidal topology at arbitrary order in the distance from the magnetic axis is carried out, yielding an analytical framework able to explore the landscape of possible magnetic flux surfaces in the vicinity of the axis. This framework can provide meaningful analytical insight on the…

Invariant manifolds are of fundamental importance to the qualitative understanding of dynamical systems. In this work, we explore and extend MacKay’s converse Kolmogorov–Arnol’d–Moser condition to obtain a sufficient condition for the nonexistence of invariant surfaces that are transverse to a chosen 1D foliation. We show how useful foliations…

Most quasisymmetric stellarators to date have been designed by numerically optimizing the plasma boundary shape to minimize symmetry-breaking Fourier modes of the magnetic field strength B. At high aspect ratio, a faster approach is to directly construct the plasma shape from the equations of quasisymmetry near the magnetic axis derived…

In this paper we follow up on the results from our previous publication (Lobsien et al 2018 Nucl. Fusion 58 106013), where it was found that stellarator coil design optimization can be substantially improved by using a stochastic optimisation approach. In that paper performance was quantified by lower (better) and more narrow (more robust)…

We describe a method to construct smooth and compactly supported solutions of 3D incompressible Euler equations and related models. The method is based on localizable Grad-Shafranov equations and is inspired by the recent result.

As a step toward understanding 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria, for which smooth solutions may not exist, we develop a simple cylindrical model to investigate the resistive stability of MHD equilibria with alternating regions of constant and nonuniform pressure, producing states with continuous total pressure (i.e., no singular current…

Analytic scaling relations are derived for a phenomenological model of the plasmoid instability in an evolving current sheet, including the effects of reconnection outflow. Two scenarios are considered, where the plasmoid instability can be triggered either by an injected initial perturbation or by the natural noise of the system (here…

Quasi-symmetry of a steady magnetic field means integrability of first-order guiding-center motion by a spatial symmetry. Here, we derive many restrictions on the possibilities for a quasi-symmetry. We also derive an analog of the Grad–Shafranov equation for the flux function in a quasi-symmetric magnetohydrostatic field.

In this work, we consider optimal control problems constrained by elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with lognormal random coefficients, which are represented by a countably infinite-dimensional random parameter with i.i.d. normal distribution. We approximate the optimal solution by a suitable truncation of its Hermite polynomial…

Recently designed optimized stellarator experiments have suffered from very tight construction tolerances, but some level of deviation of the coil system is unavoidable during fabrication of the coils and assembly of the coil system. In this paper, we present a new approach that incorporates reduced sensitivity to construction tolerances of…

The enhancement of the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide is doubling every forty years. Options must be developed for energy production that do not drive carbon-dioxide emissions and can be fully deployed within a few doubling times. Unit size and cost of electricity are only relevant in comparison to alternative worldwide…

It is shown that the magnetic-field coils of a stellarator can, at least in principle, be substantially simplified by the use of permanent magnets. Such magnets cannot create toroidal magnetic flux but they can be used to shape the plasma and thus to create poloidal flux and rotational transform, thereby easing the requirements on the magnetic…

The Multi-region Relaxed MHD (MRxMHD) has been successful in the construction of equilibria in three-dimensional (3D) configurations. In MRxMHD, the plasma is sliced into sub-volumes separated by ideal interfaces, each undergoing relaxation, allowing the formation of islands and chaos. The resulting equilibrium has a stepped pressure profile…

We present a boundary integral equation solver for computing Taylor relaxed states in non-axisymmetric solid and shell-like toroidal geometries. The computation of Taylor states in these geometries is a key element for the calculation of stepped pressure stellarator equilibria. The integral representation of the magnetic field in this work is…

A new formulation of time-dependent Relaxed Magnetohydrodynamics (RxMHD) is derived variationally from Hamilton's Action Principle using microscopic conservation of mass, and macroscopic conservation of total magnetic helicity, cross helicity and entropy, as the only constraints on variations of density, pressure, fluid velocity, and magnetic…

Stokes' theorem, in its original form and Cartan's generalization, is crucial for designing magnetic fields to confine plasma (ionized gas). The paper illustrates its use, in particular to address the question whether quasi-symmetric fields, those for which guiding-centre motion is integrable, can be made with little or no toroidal current…