** partially supported by Simons Foundation*

In the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator, the vacuum rotational transform, ι, has a flat radial profile and does not cross any major rational resonance. Nevertheless, during plasma operation the ι‐profile can be strongly modified by electron cyclotron current drive in such a way that the resulting ι-profile passes through low-order rational…

Good magnetic surfaces, as opposed to magnetic islands and chaotic field lines, are generally desirable for stellarators. In previous work, Landreman *et al.* [Phys. of Plasmas **28**, 092505 (2021)] showed that equilibria computed by the Stepped-Pressure Equilibrium Code (SPEC) [Hudson *et al.*,…

This paper describes a new and efficient method of defining an annular region of a curl-free magnetic field with specific physics and coil properties that can be used in stellarator design. Three statements define the importance: (1) Codes can follow an optimized curl-free initial state to a final full-pressure equilibrium. The large size of…

A simple condition is derived for omnigeneous toroidal plasma equilibria, which means that in a collisionless plasma the turning points of a trapped particle remain on the same magnetic surface. Omnigeneity is important for it assures that collisionless particle trajectories are consistent with achieving ignition in toroidal fusion systems…

This paper is focused on three points: (1) overcoming obstacles to tokamak power plants may require a configuration modification as large as that of a stellarator. (2) The demonstrated reliability of the computational design of stellarators should change fusion strategy. (3) Deployment of carbon-free energy sources is mandated by the thirty…

In a strong, inhomogeneous magnetic field, charged particle dynamics may be studied in the guiding-centre approximation, which is known to be Hamiltonian. When the magnetic field is quasisymmetric, the first-order guiding-centre (FGC) Hamiltonian structure admits a continuous symmetry, and therefore a conserved quantity in addition to the…

In a magnetic field, transitions between classes of guiding-centre motion can lead to cross-field diffusion and escape. We say a magnetic field is isodrastic if guiding centres make no transitions between classes of motion. Therefore, this is an important ideal for enhancing confinement. First, we present a weak formulation, based on the…

Integrable or near-integrable magnetic fields are prominent in the design of plasma confinement devices. Such a field is characterized by the existence of a singular foliation consisting entirely of invariant submanifolds. A regular leaf, known as a flux surface,of this foliation must be diffeomorphic to the two-torus. In a neighborhood of a…

In a strong, inhomogeneous magnetic field, charged particle dynamics may be studied in the guiding-centre approximation, which is known to be Hamiltonian. When the magnetic field is quasisymmetric, the first-order guiding-centre (FGC) Hamiltonian structure admits a continuous symmetry, and therefore a conserved quantity in addition to the…

Quasi-symmetry of a steady magnetic field means integrability of first-order guiding-center motion by a spatial symmetry. Here, we derive many restrictions on the possibilities for a quasi-symmetry. We also derive an analog of the Grad–Shafranov equation for the flux function in a quasi-symmetric magnetohydrostatic field.

In this work, we consider optimal control problems constrained by elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with lognormal random coefficients, which are represented by a countably infinite-dimensional random parameter with i.i.d. normal distribution. We approximate the optimal solution by a suitable truncation of its Hermite polynomial…

We describe a method to construct smooth and compactly supported solutions of 3D incompressible Euler equations and related models. The method is based on localizable Grad-Shafranov equations and is inspired by the recent result.

The gap between a recently developed dynamical version of relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (RxMHD) and ideal MHD (IMHD) is bridged by approximating the zero-resistivity "Ideal" Ohm's Law (IOL) constraint using an augmented Lagrangian method borrowed from optimization theory. The augmentation combines a pointwise vector Lagrange multiplier method…

A new formulation of time-dependent Relaxed Magnetohydrodynamics (RxMHD) is derived variationally from Hamilton's Action Principle using microscopic conservation of mass, and macroscopic conservation of total magnetic helicity, cross helicity and entropy, as the only constraints on variations of density, pressure, fluid velocity, and magnetic…

Invariant manifolds are of fundamental importance to the qualitative understanding of dynamical systems. In this work, we explore and extend MacKay’s converse Kolmogorov–Arnol’d–Moser condition to obtain a sufficient condition for the nonexistence of invariant surfaces that are transverse to a chosen 1D foliation. We show how useful foliations…